Monday

Daytrips –Pahranagat Valley Petroglyph Sites

EP-P1080848Over the past couple of weeks I made two separate visits to two petroglyph sites in the Pahranagat Valley, an area located about 90 miles north of Las Vegas off US-93. The first was to Black Canyon inside the boundaries of the Pahranagat National Wildlife Refuge … Black Canyon Petroglyphs (1st visit), & Black Canyon Petroglyphs (2nd visit) and the second was to the Ash Springs Rock Art Site in the small community of Ash Springs … Ash Springs Rock Art Site.

Black & White Conversion

EP-P1060063-P1060065While reviewing some landscape photos for a recent post (2014 Landscapes/Panoramas), I got the idea that this picture might lend itself to a black & white conversion. Check it out here … Desert Moonscape.

Saturday

Bee Mania

Bee Collage

Picture Notes: Here are a few pictures that I found while pursuing through some of my tree and flower folders. I always feel good when I am lucky enough to capture a picture of a bee that is buried in a blossom gathering nectar.  Though I originally put this post together in 2013, I updated it with a picture (Fig. 01) that was taken on 02/22 of this year on a visit to Corn Creek Station, headquarters for the Desert National Wildlife Range. Though I'm not positive, I think this is some type of Crabapple tree. As you can see, the bumble bee in the picture is buried deep into a blossom, thus the title "Headfirst". The remaining pictures were taken between 2011 and 2013. If my memory serves me, (Figs. 02 and 05) were taken around the pool area while we were living at the Players Club Apartments in Henderson. The pictures in (Figs. 03 and 06) were captured while hiking along Wheeler Pass Road on the west side of the Spring Mountains, a few miles east of Pahrump, Nevada. The bee in (Fig. 04) was taken at Cave Rock State Park just north of South Lake Tahoe.
  
EFP-P1060791
(Fig. 01) Title - "Diving Headfirst"

Bumble Bee 3
(Fig. 02)
E-P1090523-2
(Fig. 03)
E-P1000686-2
(Fig. 04)
Flight of the Bumble Bee2
(Fig. 05)
Sipping3
(Fig. 06)

Black Canyon Petroglyph Site – Trip Notes for 11/13/2014

{Click on an image to enlarge, then use the back button to return to this page}

EFP-P1080859-P1080861
(Fig. 01)
MAP-Pahranagat NWR
(Fig. 02)
Site Description: Generally known as the Black Canyon Petroglyphs, this 10-acre section of the Pahranagat National Wildlife Refuge was placed on the U.S National Register of Historic Places in 1975 as an archeological historic district having significant potential for information to be learned in the future. Back in 2009, there was an extensive volunteer project that documented over 100 rock art panels at seven sites in and around this location. Black Canyon itself is well-known for its concentration of what is referred to as Pahranagat Representational Style petroglyphs - a distinctive anthropomorph style composed of varying treatments of the human form, often called the Pahranagat Man. It is often a headless rectangular form containing internal decoration accompanied by an atlatl-like design. The body of the anthropomorph is sometimes a solic-pecked oval or somewhat rectangular form with a line protruding from the head and with down-turned arms and extended hands as in (Fig. 17) below. With a style that seems to be restricted in distribution to the Pahranagat Valley area, it seems to point to a localized cultural development. The representation of the atlatl would date some of these petroglyphs to more than a 1,000 years old. Overall, the projectile points, sherds, and hydration rim values found during the study reflect an Early Ceramic and Late Archaic use—within the last 1,500 years—with Late Archaic indicators significantly outnumbering Early Ceramic ones, underscoring occupations of Black Canyon within the last 750 years.


Site Habitation: Based upon the rock art found here, it appears that a small band of Pahranagats may have once inhabited this area. Located at the top of the large mound are several circular stone areas that may have once been part of a crude shelter. There is also evidence of grinding slicks that were used for the grinding or crushing of seeds and nuts with a stone.

(Fig. 03)
The Pahranagat Valley lies at the very edge of what is considered as the Fremont "zone". "Fremont" is the name archaeologists have given to a mysterious group of ancient people(s) who lived between 1,500 and 800 years ago. Though centered in Utah and named for its Fremont River, they spilled over into the neighboring states, including Nevada (Fig. 03). These nomadic peoples are often referred to as "hunter-gatherers" because they had to move from place to place following the seasonal ripening of important plants and the migration of game animals, often caused by the rains or lack thereof. The Fremont culture arose here at a time when there was much more water available. When water was available, they actually began to cultivate maize and other plants, becoming more sedentary. Many archaeologists think that the Fremont people may have developed from the Anasazi (Puebloan culture) (Fig. 03). Whether the Fremont people lived in this area or just passed through, still isn't known for sure. Some scholars think that they were forced out by the Southern Paiute. Whatever the case, it is commonly believed that long periods of drought led to the eventual demise of these cultures in the harsh desert areas. These types of harsh conditions such as a lack of food and water would cause people to travel farther to find them. When it became too hot and dry to grow crops, they would have had to abandon the location and go back to being full-time hunters and gatherers. Click here to learn more about this area ... Understanding Nevada Rock Art.


11/13/2014 Trip Notes (1st visit): The goal of today’s hike was to locate some petroglyphs in an area known as Black Canyon. This section of the property encompasses the largest portion of the refuge that is located on the east side of US-93 (Fig. 02). Entering the area from Black Canyon Road (Fig. 02). we were immediately confronted with one of the largest Cyprus trees I have ever seen (Fig. 04).  Fed by the Upper Pahranagat Lake to the north (Fig. 01) the canyon floor is a large watershed area (Figs. 05 & 06) with a long curving river that snakes it way through the entire length of the property. Not knowing where the petroglyphs were located, my hiking partners (Mary LaMasa and Robert Croke) and I chose to hike along the eastern boundary which is bordered by a long 100-200 foot high ridge-line (Fig 07). Even though we ended up finding several good examples Pahranagat Representational Style petroglyphs, later research indicated that one of the best Pahranagat Man petroglyphs is to be found in the large mound on the western side of the canyon next to the highway, as seen in the upper left of (Fig. 06). Click here for info and pictures from my second visit to Black Canyon a week later ... [More Black Canyon Petroglyphs]
                                      
EFP-P1080797-P1080798
(Fig. 04)
EFP-P1080825-P1080826
(Fig.05)
EFP-P1080827-P1080828
(Fig. 06)
EFP-P1080799
(Fig. 07)
Because the petroglyphs on the eastern ridge were located so high up, we had to climb three quarters of the way up the steep, crumbling ridge-line (Fig. 08 & 09) in order to capture any good pictures. Throughout the course of our hike, we found several stand-alone petroglyph panels that contained what appeared to be nothing more that a series of “pecked” dots (Figs. 10-13) (Click to enlarge) Even though I have no clue as to what they are trying to represent, the fact that there were so many of them makes me think that their significance was important. From the road below, Mary acted as our “spotter”, pointing out the locations of glyphs along the ridge, causing Bob and I to climb higher. As we neared the end of the ridge-line, along with some more abstract symbols, we actually found several panels containing zoomorphs (Figs. 14 & 15) and one with a very distinct anthropomorph of a Pahranagat Man (Figs. 16 & 17).
                                         
EFP-P1080821
(Fig. 08)
EFP-P1080829
(Fig. 09)
EFP-P1080788
(Fig. 10)
EFP-P1080802
(Fig. 11)
EFP-P1080809
(Fig. 12)
EFP-P1080812
(Fig.13)
EFP-P1080815
(Fig. 14)
EfP-P1080832
(Fig. 15)
EFP-P1080839
(Fig. 16
EFP-P1080848
(Fig. 17)
After climbing back down off the ridgeline, we hiked north to the southern end of Upper Pahranagat Lake (Fig. 02). I was sorry to see how much the lake had dropped since my previous visit here. Much of the lakes" shoreline, as seen in (Figs. 01, 18 & 19), was under water that last time I visited here. Even though it is several weeks past prime "leaf peaking", we were still able to experience some nice fall color. After a brief period of watching birds and picture taking (Fig. 20), we began to hike up the road (Fig. 21) that follows the lake’s eastern shoreline to the upper dam where we joined up with the rest of our group for lunch before beginning the long two hour ride back to the Senior Center. Click here for info and pictures from my second visit to Black Canyon a week later ... [More Black Canyon Petroglyphs]
                           
EFP-P1080875
(Fig. 18)
EFP-P1080879
(Fig. 19)
EFP-P1080857
(Fig. 20)
EFP-P1080854
(Fig. 21)
Click here for pics of my second visit to Black Canyon [More Black Canyon Petroglyphs]
Click here to [Return to the Previous Page]

Ash Springs Rock Art Site

 {Click on an image to enlarge, then use the back button to return to this page}

Introduction: As I began to discover more and more rock art sites during my hikes over these past several years, I have become witness to far too many examples of where persons had seemed fit to deface them with graffiti and other examples of damage. Eventually I realized that the sharing of my hiking adventures could have the potential to increase public exposure, and thereby increasing the possibility for even more damage. As a result, I decided to preface each of my rock art pages with the following information to help educate visitors about the importance of these fragile cultural resources. Before scrolling down, I implore you to READ the following ... as well as the linked page providing guidelines for preserving rock art.


Here are a few simple guidelines you can follow that will help to preserve these unique and fragile cultural resources that are part of our heritage. Guidelines for Preserving Rock Art. If you would like to learn more about the Nevada Site Stewardship Program, go to my page ... Nevada Site Stewardship Program (NSSP).
    
EFP--P1120955
(Fig. 01)
MAP-Ash Springs Petroglyphs Site
(Fig. 02)
Directions: From Las Vegas, take I-15 north towards Salt Lake City. Travel about 22 miles and turn left onto US-93. Follow US-93 for about 79 miles. The Ash Springs Rock Art Site is located approximately 6.9 miles north of Alamo on the east side of HWY 93 slightly north of mile marker 45, across the road from the white trailer with the white picket fence. Shortly after pulling off US-93, you must open a barbed-wire gate (Fig. 01) to enter the site. Be sure to close upon entering and leaving.

Site Description: The Ash Springs Rock Art Site is a relatively small area of lightly desert-varnished boulders on a low hill overlooking the verdant Pahranagat Valley. It is located in the small community of Ash Springs, a desert oasis that is part of a series of natural springs in the area, which sits in the middle of the beautiful high desert landscape of the Pahranagat Valley. Ash Springs has two natural hot springs, Big Ash and Little Ash, which still today attracts visitors year round. Located just east of town, the site extends to the top of the eastern situated hill directly behind it known as "Shaman's Vista". Typical of many Great Basin rock art sites, the Petroglyphs found here are engraved; etched onto rock faces by pecking, abrading, scratching or a combination of these techniques. All petroglyphs at Ash Springs are pecked and display a wide range of line widths. Though there is easily identifiable formal trail, the route begins at the metal sign-in register, about a 100 yards past the barbed-wire gate. There is a rough trail map in the handout inside the sign-in register (Fig. 02). Begin by turning to the right and heading northeast. Look for diamond-shaped route markers along the way. The total distance is approximately .35 miles and is an easy walk. The elevation of this site is between 3,600 to 3,800 feet. You should allow at least one hour; longer if you decide to hike to Shaman's Vista. The best time to visit this site is during the cooler months of Spring and Fall. Hiking here during the summer months can be brutal.
                             
EFP-P1120947
(Fig. 03)
Site Habitation: The site is predominantly a habitation site comprised of two high intensity areas of domestic activity and includes 12 semicircular cobblestone alignments along with associated lithic (stone tools) material. With its large boulders sheltering people from the cold, this area is known to have been a winter site for the Pahranagats, and might have accommodated a small village of 25-40 individuals. The Pahranagats' primary political and economic unit was the mobile extended family. These small parties ranged throughout the region during the course of the seasonal round to take advantage of the varying availability of local resources. Despite the Pahranagat's excellent survival skills, starvation was often prevalent in the spring when winter stores were depleted and spring food plants had not yet begun to germinate. When food plants did become available, populations dispersed along the valley floors during the spring and summer. Seeds, roots, tubers and berries were collected and small animals were trapped and eaten. The practice of horticulture yielded crops of maize, beans, squash, pumpkins, sunflowers, lamb's quarters and winter wheat. Garden plots were situated along the margins of lower altitude lakes and marshes and were watered by irrigation ditches. During the fall, people came together in large gatherings for the purpose of harvesting pinenuts, communal rabbits drives and mourning ceremonies. Water was ordinarily obtained from snow melt off, however, the constant availability of warm water at Ash Springs, just a short distance away (Fig. 03), rendered this unnecessary and made this site extremely desirable.

In general, less food gathering took place during the winter months, although there was occasional hunting. The presence of debitage, or stone flakes, indicate that many stone tools, such as knives, drills, scrapers, hammerstones, and a variety of projectile points, were created here. Sherds of Fremont-like greyware have also been found, indicating the presence of these Southwestern groups who co-existed in this area along with the Pahranagats c. AD 500-1250. The Pahranagats, like other culture groups in this area, represented a long-standing tradition (c. 12,000 years) of diverse lifeways which included hunting and gathering combined with periods of sedentism. The Pahranagats also had a highly specialized basketry tradition. Baskets specifically fashioned to gather and process plant foods included burden baskets, winnowing and parching trays, bowls, and seed beaters. Approximately AD 1000, a major subsistence change may have occurred when hunting was increasingly replaced by the consumption of plants and small animals (i.e., rodents, birds, insects) as major sources of nutrition. Horticulture became an important subsistence activity, a practice which may have been borrowed from the Virgin River Anasazi, another Southwestern group present in this area along with the Fremont's. Other than this, no major disruption is inferred throughout this cultural sequence until the nineteenth century. At this time native inhabitants were severely affected by the presence of European settlers in the area, particularly during the great mining boom of the 1860's. Indigenous populations were displaced, eradicated or at least greatly attenuated. Click here to learn more about this area ... Understanding Nevada Rock Art.
                                      
EFP-P1080964
(Fig. 04)
11/13/2014 Trip Notes: As neither of my hiking partners, Robert Croke (Fig. 04) or Blake Smith (Fig. 05) had ever been to this site, we decided to come here for some more “petroglyph” viewing after a morning of hiking around the Black Canyon Petroglyph site at the Pahranagat National Wildlife Refuge. Picking up the “handout” from the kiosk, we used its crude map to make our way around the site. Because many of the petroglyphs here are barely recognizable due to the constant deterioration caused by weathering from the natural elements of sun, rain and wind, trying to line up the descriptions with their locations is rather difficult. As noted upon my previous visit, many of the glyphs found here are abstract in design (Fig. 06) making them very difficult to interpret. Without doubt, the most common are the zoomorphs (representations of four legged animals) mixed with a few anthropomorphs (human-like figures). Read more below.
EFP-P1080946
(Fig. 05)
EFP-P1080954
(Fig. 06)
The pictures in (Figs. 07 & 08) are two of the better representations of anthropomorphs found here. Based upon what appear to be large breasts, the figure in (Fig. 07) is known as "Vavavoom Woman". The pictures in (Figs. 09-12) show some of the better representations of zoomorphs. The fact that some of these panels contain nearly a dozen representations of sheep clearly emphasizes their importance, either as a food staple, hunting ritual or religious significance. The boulder in (Fig. 09) has two rock art panels which include several zoomorphs. As you can see, they are quite damaged. It even appears that some original rock art is now gone as the result of natural weathering processes and/or vandalism. There were at least two examples (Fig. 12) showing atlatls sticking out of the back of mountain sheep. Notice the animal represented in the lower left corner of the panel in (Fig. 11) is that of an elk verses a bighorn sheep.
                                   
EFP-P1080951
(Fig. 07)
EfP-P1080952
(Fig. 08)
EFP-P1080980
(Fig. 09)
EFP-P1080995
(Fig. 10)
EP-P1080948
(Fig. 11)
EFP-P1080984
(Fig. 12)
06/21/2012 Trip Notes: On the return from a week-long camping trip with Harvey Smith to Spring Valley State Park, north of Pioche, NV, we made a side trip to the Ash Springs Rock Art Site (Fig. 13) at Ash Springs, Nevada. As you can see from the map in (Fig 02), there are roughly 18 separately identified panels located on the desert varnished rocks found at this site. Unfortunately, many are barely recognizable due to the constant deterioration caused by weathering from the natural elements of sun, rain and wind. To us it appeared that much of the imagery we observed here was clearly non-representational (Figs. 14 & 15), though I’m sure it would have been clearly understood by the cultures who created it. Some of the more recognizable glyphs are zoomorphs and resemble animals, including all four-legged types or quadrupeds, as well as birds, insects, and other animals (Fig. 15), with mountain sheep being the most common. Human figures, or anthropomorphs are some of the other recognizable forms found at Ash Springs and often exhibit striking variations in design (Fig. 16).
                               
EFP-P1120948
(Fig. 13)
EFP-P1120929
(Fig. 14)
EFP-P1120939
(Fig. 15)
EFP2-P1080948
(Fig. 16)
EFP-P1120923
(Fig. 17)


The slideshow below is designed to run automatically in place. Place the cursor anywhere on the picture being shown to bring up the Pause, Forward and Back menu at the bottom of the slideshow window, allowing you to start, stop or manually forward pictures one at a time.

To view the slideshow full-screen, click in the middle of the running show. When the new browser window appears, click on the "Full screen" button on the left side of the menu bar.
When the full screen window appears, use the menu bar to play and control the slide show.



Slideshow Description:
The slideshow above contains 44 pictures that were taken on two visits to this petroglyph site.

_________

Reference Materials:

Manuscript written by Kenneth C. Clarke